Modern agricultural irrigation is a complex interplay of sustainable energy consumption, water use, market conditions, and the application of experience and knowledge to ensure the best design for irrigation applications. Understanding past practices, current water and energy issues, and developments in pump technology contributes to building pumping systems that best service the needs of modern agriculture. The agricultural market is changing rapidly, and farmers cannot rely on the technology and practices of the past. To keep productivity high and stay competitive in the market, farmers need to focus on profitability, which includes energy optimization and better use of water resources. Pumping systems play a vital role in providing optimized solutions for energy and water use. Access to groundwater involves submersible or vertical turbine pumps. On the other hand, centrifugal pumps in different configurations, split case pumps and end suction pumps have been traditional solutions for surface water intake.